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The following achievements are associated with this Sphere of Influence:
Establishing the US biotech industry
Adrenalin, one of the first of the many 'blockbuster' drugs introduced during the 20th century was discovered and patented by Jokichi Takamine.
Inventing the world’s first commercial vaccine for a parasitic disease of cattle (Dictol)
In the late 1950s, a multidisciplinary group of scientists at the Glasgow Veterinary School developed the world's first successful vaccine for a parasitic disease affecting cattle.
Winning the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1988
The world of clinical pharmacology was greatly advanced with James Black's discoveries of the first beta-blocking heart drug in the 1950s (propranolol), and the first drug to block stomach acid secretion (cimetidine) in 1977.